Why You Need to Read: “Binti: The Complete Trilogy”

Binti: The Complete Trilogy                                                      

By: Nnedi Okorafor

Published:  Binti(#1) released September 22, 2015

                 Binti: Sacred Fire(#1.5) released February 5, 2019

                 Binti: Home(#2) released January 31, 2017

                Binti: The Night Masquerade(#3) released January 16, 2018

                Binti: The Complete Trilogyreleased February 5, 2019

Genre: Science Fiction, Afrofuturism, Anthology  

Winner of the Nebula Award for Best Novella 2015 & the Hugo Award for Best Novella 2016

PLEASE NOTE: The following contains minor spoilers for all four novellas. You have been warned.

I am Binti Ekeopara Zuzu Dambu Kaipka of Namib (Binti).

            Every once in a while you hear about a story that is so unique and so captivating that it is suggested that everyone should read it regardless if it’s not from their preferred genre of literature. Bintiis a story about a young woman who leaves her home—without her family’s blessing—so that she can take advantage of an once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to attend the most prestigious university in the galaxy, Oomza Uni. She boards a spacecraft and it is traveling to a distant planet, and Binti has never been away from her home before. It seems like the story will pick up pace once the spacecraft arrives; only it is attacked by a “hostile” alien species. This is the first part of the first novella in the series by Nnedi Okorafor—which, won both the Nebula and the Hugo awards for “Best Novella”—and, neither the action, nor the story ends with the first novella! Binti: The Complete Trilogycontains all of the author’s stories in one volume!

            Bintistarts off with a simple plot: a gifted young woman goes against her family’s expectations in order to attend an esteemed university. Readers are introduced to Binti’s intelligence for mathematics, abilities as a harmonizer, and Himba culture. At the same time, readers are reminded that human differences and alien versus human culture clashes exist in the future as well. One particular rivalry between the species quickly becomes the center of the story, quickly. Binti has to find a way to survive her new—and unexpected—predicament, which will be hard because the Meduse, the hostile alien species want her dead. 

            Binti is terrified to the point where it’s easier to blame herself for her current situation rather than realize how sheltered she was back on Earth. Binti soon realizes that she must rely on her abilities and her talent in order to understand the situation and escape with her life. However, Binti is not in control of either her abilities, or the tools she has with her. This means improvising. She soon realizes that her astrolabe allows her to communicate with the Meduse on the spacecraft. Binti is able to come up with a strategy to save herself, the lives at Oomza Uni, and the lives of the people on Earth, including her family. Even though she succeeds, the experience of Binti’s excursion to Oomza Uni changes her in more ways than one.

            Binti: Sacred Fireis the latest story written by the author in this series, but it serves as an interlude between the first and the second books in the series. This tale provides an appropriate look into Binti’s life as a student at the university she saved. She has become friends with one of the Meduse, Okwu, who is now a student at the university as well. Readers gain insight into Binti’s interactions with her classmates and her professors, and her family and friends back home (the ones who are willing to talk to her). 

            Unfortunately, Binti’s new life at Oomza Uni is not as smooth as she hopes. She is suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder from her voyage to the university and from the bullying from a few of the humans who happen to be from a feuding tribe from Earth. Although Binti is hailed as a hero for negotiating a truce, she feels as isolated at Oomza Uni as she did back home. Not to mention, Binti is still dealing with some personal “changes” to her being. 

            Even though Binti is traumatized and isolated, she is not alone. Her friends are with her as she works her way through her adjustments and her traumas. Binti knows that it’ll take a while to get used to her new lifestyle, but it seems like she’ll be getting the full university experience. 

            Binti: Homeis about what is in the title. Binti completes her first semester or year at Oomza Uni and decides to return home to visit her family and to participate in her tribe’s pilgrimage. Binti has made progress at the university: in her classes, in her therapy sessions, and in her reputation as a Master Harmonizer. However, returning home means traveling by spacecraft, and it’s the same one Binti traveled on to get to Oomza Uni.

            The spacecraft—known as The Third Fish—is a living thing that flies in outer space. Binti—who is still suffering from PTSD—decides to stay in the same room she stayed in during her first voyage in order to face her trauma. Throughout the voyage, Binti is able to make some progress of dealing with her panic attacks and flashbacks. However, Binti still has to face her fear of reuniting with her family. And, since she’s lived away from her home for a while, she’s forgotten some of her people’s more casual customs. Binti has changed in more ways than one because of her experiences. Unfortunately, her family and her tribe are static in their ways and are disgusted with Binti’s changes and growth. 

            The purpose of a pilgrimage is for an individual to seek growth through moral and spiritual growth. Oftentimes, that individual becomes enlightened and transformed by the end of their pilgrimage. This is what happens to Binti during her pilgrimage even if it isn’t the pilgrimage she was supposed to go on. The pilgrimage Binti goes on brings her to a new level of personal enlightenment. And, she is made aware of her own prejudices and slowly comes around to accepting the changes she’s been experiencing. At the same time, the prejudices surrounding three different clans have erupted, and Binti—once again—must rely on her skills as a harmonizer in order to diffuse the tensions before war breaks out. 

            Binti: The Night Masquerade starts where Binti: Homeleft off, with Binti rushing back to her family home after her pilgrimage in order to stop a war before it starts. The Night Masquerade is a personification of the coming of a “big change.” To Binti, she interprets it to mean a war is about to start. And, Binti plans on ending it before it can happen.

            Cultures clash, hidden history is revealed, and someone always gets betrayed. The POVs change so that the readers have a better understanding of what is happening during certain parts of the story. Within the conclusion to this series, readers realize that not everyone is willing to accept change, not everyone wants to interact with someone who is “different” from themselves, and not everyone is willing to admit he/she/it/they have flaws. Binti comes to terms with all of this as she returns to Oomza Uni just in time for the upcoming academic year. All of her experiences and changes within herself allow Binti to elevate herself beyond the status of Master Harmonizer. However, Binti wishes to continue her studies, for the time being. 

            It was thrilling to read Bintiagain. And, Binti: The Complete Trilogyallows readers to enjoy all of the Binti stories in tandem. Fans of Nnedi Okorafor and readers of speculative fiction will appreciate this series compilation as much as I did. Reading through Binti’s life as a university freshman reminded me of some of my experiences during my first year of college as well, including the changes in myself and the stagnancy of everything else. Bintiis a story about personal growth through experience and change, and how expectations depend on individual actions, not those of others. This coming-of-age story is pleasing to all readers and it should not be overlooked. And, readers can rejoice knowing that Nnedi Okorafor has plans to continue Binti’s story! 

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Why You Need to Read…My Selections for Best Speculative Fiction Books of 2018

2018 has been an amazing year for writers, editors, publishers, and readers of speculative fiction. Throughout this year, I’ve caught up with my reading of various genres in the print and digital formats. Also, I managed to read many of 2018’s new releases, and they were amazing reads. In fact, there were so many anticipated novels, novellas, short stories, non-fiction, and anthologies that I neither read, nor completed many of the books released in 2018. 

            There are two things I learned throughout all of this year’s readings. One, speculative fiction’s spectrum continues to lengthen including stories of all sorts from authors of multiple demographic backgrounds. Two, readers and publishers are becoming more and more aware of the sort of stories that could emerge from this broader genre of literature than the ‘older’ and ‘more rigid’ structures of the previous separate binary genres of the past.

            The award winners and nominees of all the literature prizes demonstrate how the mainstream is starting to publicize these authors more and more. N.K. Jemisin’s historic win at the Hugo Awards made the news on several major news networks. And, Haruki Murakami withdrew his nomination for the Nobel Prize in Literature so he could, “stay focused on his writing.” These big moments in the literary community captured the attention of non-speculative fiction readers and everyone else. Maybe literary scholars will begin to pay more attention to this genre the way Americans are starting to pay attention to football (a.k.a. soccer). 

            Although I did NOT get to read and/or to finish many of the 2018 releases—Foundryside by Robert Jackson Bennett; Circe by Madeline Miller; Children of Blood and Bone by Toni Adeyemi; Head On by John Scalzi; Tempests and Slaughter by Tamora Pierce;How Long ‘til Black Future Month? by N.K. Jemisin, etc.—I managed to read many books of all formats (and in other genres). Obviously, my focus for this posting is what I consider to be the best releases in speculative fiction of 2018. If you are curious as to the other books I’ve read or started reading in 2018, then you can checkout my list on my Goodreads page. 

               Originally, I was not going to do a ranking. There were many books I wanted to mention and I was going to categorize my list based on: debut novels, novels with distinctive narratives, novellas, and anthologies. However, when I spoke to my friends and other readers, I realized that I kept mentioning the same books over and over again. These books stood out to me the most, so a Top Ten list came together. 

            Once again, this is a list of my favorite speculative fiction books of 2018. There won’t be any “Honorable Mentions” here, and this list will be descending (#10-#1). If you believe I missed a book, or if you wish to comment on my choices, then please leave a message in the comments section.

#10 The Armored Saint (The Sacred Throne #1) by Myke Cole

            As I mentioned in my review of this novella on Goodreads, this novella is a good start to what will eventually be a series. And, since I have not read The Queen of Crowsyet, I can only assume that both the story and the pace will pick up in that book. Don’t get me wrong, the story is worth reading and is different from other stories I’ve read, but I wanted more from it, which is a good thing. For this reason, I cannot put this book any higher on my list. 

            That being said, The Armored Saintis an interesting medieval fantasy tale, which takes the notions of religion and combines it with the idea of technological warfare. In this case, giant armored bots (look at the cover) are the weapons of power. The story begins with the protagonist, Heloise, getting into trouble with those in power and she witnesses the death and the destruction of those she cares about. However, Myke Cole does not use tropes in the ‘clichéd’ way. Instead, readers are surprised at what happens to everyone within the protagonist’s inner circle. And, while this story ends with you wanting for more, you will believe you were cheated due to the slow pace of this novella.

#9Empire of Sandby Tasha Suri

            2018 was a year containing many amazing debut books by authors—many of whom are not Caucasian—and managed to reintroduce readers to the notions of “old magic” and the treatment of the individuals who have the innate ability to wield it. Empire of Sandtakes a look into a society in which clans of tribesmen and tribeswomen are abducted for “the good of the Empire.” 

            Mehr is the illegitimate daughter of one of the Imperial Governors who defies her family’s wishes and paranoia, and performs the magical rites of her mother’s family. When the Religious Order notices her, she is forced to become a ‘tool’ for the Empire. As I read this novel, the characters are what kept my attention the most. The protagonist’s love for her family and her mixed heritage are what drives the story. The story gets really interesting during the last 100 pages, and it’ll make you want the next book in the series sooner rather than later. 

#8Trail of Lightning (The Sixth World #1)by Rebecca Roanhorse

            This debut novel written by the 2018 Recipient of the John W. Campbell Award for Best New Writer takes place on a dystopian Earth, which ended due to climate change. The aftermath includes the return of Navajo deities and monsters. Maggie, a monster hunter with supernatural abilities, is hired to locate a missing girl. From there, the story turns into a scavenger hunt in what remains of the Southwestern region of the United States.

            This is the first fantasy novel involving Native American characters that I’ve read. Plus, I can see why Rebecca Roanhorse has been nominated for all the literary awards, and winning some of them. It’s not just about the idea that climate change is responsible for the dystopian society, but it includes the reminder that the ancient deities—no matter where they’re from and/or located—always have their desires over those of humans. The idea that the ‘end of the world’ leads to the return of the gods, so they can reform the world makes for a very intriguing story. 

#7Rosewaterby Tade Thompson

            I received an ARC of this book and I should have read it sooner, but I managed to read it all the same! This Afrocentric book tells an interesting story of individuals who use their innate abilities as part of their jobs, while residing near an alien dome. Yes, there was an alien invasion and every year people travel to Nigeria in order to be blessed with the healing powers of the dome. 

            This novel catches your attention with the reminder that a futuristic world will continue to have some of the same issues as we do in present society. In this case, cyber-hacking is a concern to the point where Kaaro, the protagonist, and others use their psychic abilities as part of their job description for both the local bank and (in Kaaro’s case) the government. After the annual healing ceremony, things go well and poorly for Kaaro. While he gets into an intimate relationship, Kaaro realizes that there is more happening to him and to those in his community. Some of it involves his past and some of it involves the changes occurring within his society. The blend of science, fantasy, and religion makes Rosewaterstand out from the rest of 2018’s speculative fiction releases. And, like the previous mentions, readers can expect a follow up book to be released in 2019. 

#6 The Black God’s Drums by P. Djèlí Clark

            I mentioned pacing as being essential to telling a story and Clark does an excellent job incorporating it into his novella, The Black God’s Drums. The setting is Post Civil War Louisiana where the technology is advanced and dangerous. Gender roles and terrorism are at the center of this steampunk thriller in which a young woman, Creeper, overhears a plot to bomb New Orleans during Mardi Gras. 

            The best thing about this novella is that I forget I was reading a novella! Creeper’s adventure in New Orleans does not occur through the span of a few weeks. Instead, the story and the dilemma occur and resolve within approximately 24-48 hours! The way Clark presents this story has you realizing that you are reading the action in real-time! For anyone who wants a quick and a fun tale, then I highly recommend The Black God’s Drums. I can’t wait to read more from this author!

#5Vengeful (Villains #2)by V.E. Schwab

            Recently, I started reading Schwab’s books, and I can say that my interest in her other books and series continues to increase. Vengeful is the second book in the Villains series, and it lives up to both the fans’ expectations, and its title. Vengeful begins where Viciousends, and it’s a marvelous continuation of what happens to the characters from the first story. In addition, Schwab introduces us to new characters that either are EO’s, or know about them.

            What I enjoyed the most about Vengefulis that Schwab continues to incorporate her take on the concept of ‘superheroes.’ In Schwab’s world, anyone can become an EO, but not everyone receives an ability worthy of awe. In addition, there are consequences pertaining to EO’s, and it reminds readers that anything involving magic, the supernatural, or the unknown comes at a cost. The new characters readers follow is another reminder regarding the name of the series. There are no ‘good superheroes’ in this story. 

#4The Poppy Warby R.F. Kuang

            This debut novel is based on the history of the Sino-Japanese War and the culture of China until that war. Readers learn about Chinese schooling, Chinese warfare, and shamanism. Rin is an orphan who decides that her only chance at a better life is an admission into Sinegard, the most elite military school in her country. While she does get into the university, Rin will have to train harder in order to remain a student there. Unfortunately, by the time Rin completes her training and her education, war breaks out and she’ll have to use everything she’s learned for her survival. 

            I enjoyed The Poppy Warbecause of the blending of history and fantasy. It’s interesting to read a book, which is influenced by another country’s history and culture. It’s a reminder that there are more aspects to our world than we know about. The best part of reading The Poppy Waris learning about the protagonist and the other characters who are learning and putting their training into action. Yes, the battle scenes and its aftermath are brutal reminders of war, but the scenes at the school are brutal reminders of the risks people take in order to achieve their goals. 

#3 Spinning Silver by Naomi Novik

            I received an ARC for this novel, too; and, I couldn’t help it, but I started reading Spinning Silver, as soon as I got it. Spinning Silveris a companion novel to Novik’s award winning, Uprooted. This time, the tale is a retelling of Rumpelstiltskinand a cautionary tale of saying a ‘few harmless words.’ While Miryem is the main focus in Spinning Silver, she is not the only protagonist. For this reason, it makes the story all the more interesting. What will all the female characters (and one young male character)—from various backgrounds, with different dilemmas—do when the odds continue to buildup against them?

            I knew that I would love Spinning Silvereven before I received it! Naomi Novik does an amazing job blending folklore into her fantasy tales. Folklore is the idea of customs, traditions and practices that get pass along through generations without keep any formal track of them, such as stories. Novik provides examples of such practices in Spinning Silver. It gives her readers something familiar while reading her fantasy stories!

#2 The Murderbot Diaries (#1-4) by Martha Wells

            This series was going to be my #1 pick of 2018 until I read the book that would push it back to #2. And, I know I’m cheating because the first novella, All Systems Red, was released in 2017, but since it won all of the awards in 2018, and you need to read the first novella in order to read the rest of them, so I rest my case! All four novellas in this series take place in consecutive order, with Artificial Conditionand Rogue Protocolfollowing the first novella, and the story concludes with Exit Strategy, for now. 

            Before reading Martha Wells’ books, I have not read any books about robot protagonists. However, The Murderbot Diariesare told from the point-of-view of a Security Unit, or SecUnit for short, who is a robot that offers contracted protection. In the case of our SecUnit, readers learn that it chooses to follow orders because it is not under the control of its manufacturers. In other words, the SecUnit went ‘rogue’ before the events of All Systems Red. All of the actions and the decisions our SecUnit makes throughout the novellas are choices it made itself and for its own reasons. I enjoyed every single book in this series and the series is a fun read for all science fiction readers. Yes, the SecUnit knows how to fight! I cannot wait until the upcoming novel is published! 

#1Vita Nostraby Marina and Sergey Dyachenko

            Every once in a while, one comes across a book, or a story, that is so captivating and impacting that it alters your view of literature. Not only does it find its way to your all-time favorite books list, but also has you searching for similar books in the same (sub)genre. I find it shocking that this award-winning novel from Ukraine was published in 2007! Why did it take over 10 years to get this novel in English?

            The way Marina and Sergey Dyachenko tell this story is interesting. Sasha is ‘selected’ to become a candidate to an exclusive vocational school, before the start of her senior year in high school. Throughout that year, Sasha performs and accomplishes all of the tasks presented to her even as she notices some minor changes within herself. Once she becomes a student at the college, Sasha is pushed to her limits to the point of physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion. Yet, Sasha and her classmates continue with their studies because failure does NOT equate expulsion! Readers learn with Sasha and the other students as to why they were ‘selected’ and what they hope to achieve by the end of their education at ‘that’ school. Vita Nostrais the first book in the Metamorphosisseries; and, I hope we get the translations of those books sooner rather then later. 

            This is one of the best books I have ever read! Yes, I enjoy stories—regardless of its genre—that standout; Vita Nostrais an example of a story that takes its genre to a higher level. As I read the story and the events surrounding Sasha’s education, her growth into adulthood, and her disgruntled interactions with her family, I realized Vita Nostra is one of the best examples of what speculative fiction could be! The idea that there is more to our mundane world is nothing new to readers of the genre, but the way the authors present that notion through their writing leaves you in awe of everything you’ll read in this novel!

            My favorites of 2018 contain books within the speculative fiction spectrum ranging from science fiction to fantasy, from folklore to alternative history, and from paranormal to metaphysical. And, while many of my picks are part of a continuing series, each book stood out to me due to the plot, the story, the setting, the characters, the pacing, etc. While there were many other noteworthy books released in 2018 that I have not read yet, I plan on reading those books while reading both other books and new releases in 2019.

            2019 already looks promising with the books being released as well as others that may or may not get the same level of attention. Many of them sound exciting, but reading them will determine which stories get passed along. I hope this list provided some insight as to which books I enjoyed the most in 2018 and why. Let us continue reading in the New Year. 

Three Topics Surrounding the Black Community that are Subtle and Profound in “Black Panther”

(If you have neither seen, nor read Black Panther, then please be aware of spoilers!)

Black Panther is the latest Marvel (and Disney) feature film in which, King T’Challa returns to his home, Wakanda, in order to be anointed king and establish his rule. In addition, he has to come to terms with a changing society, a villain from the past, and a contender for the throne. And, while this is not the first feature film about a “Black” superhero—check out the Blade Trilogy—it does include many hidden references that Black people, in the United States and in the rest of the world, are familiar with as part of their heritage. And, no, I’m not referring to the scene with the wig.

First, there is the opening scene, which states, “1992 Oakland.” Without spoiling this scene, it is important to focus on its setting. Anyone who remembers 1992, remembers the L.A. Riots that occurred as a result of the Verdict in the Rodney King Trial. Southern California had several racial issues that were a build up of tensions between the Black community and the Los Angeles Police Department, the Black community and the Asian store owners, and the Drug Wars. These tensions and incidents have been discussed in documentaries and in the biopic, Straight Outta Compton.

In addition, it is important to know that societal improvement has been slow during the past 25 years. Fruitvale Station is about a Black man who is shot and killed by a White Police Officer. The movie is based on real life events following the murder of Oscar Grant. Interestingly, Michael B. Jordan stars in this movie, which is directed by Ryan Coogler, the director of Black Panther. The fact that Erik Killmonger was raised in that environment during that moment in American history is essential to both his character and his personality.

Second, there is the following scene, in which T’Challa “rescues” Nakia from bandits. It turns out that these bandits are men from the terrorist group, Boko Haram. Boko Haram—“Western education is a sin”—is a terrorist group who, similar to the Taliban, want to return their society to “earlier” Muslim practices. Unfortunately, the common misconception of this belief is the objection of females. Boko Haram believes that females should NOT be educated and independent of males; however, they believe that Western culture is responsible for this “risk.” Hundreds of girls have been abducted from their schools, held captive (at gunpoint), and forced to marry members of the terrorist group. Ironically, when the movie premiered, Boko Haram struck again and abducted over 100 schoolgirls in Dapchi, Nigeria. For some reason, neither the United Nations, nor the world leaders have done anything to put an end to this terrorist group. Whether or not they have been working on a solution without the public’s knowledge is undetermined. Yet, it is strange that a fictional country is putting more emphasis on this than the news networks.

Last, is one of the closing scenes in which, Erik is dying and T’Challa allows him to make a final decision. Erik makes his decision saying the following: “Bury me in the ocean with my ancestors that jumped from the ship because they knew death was better than bondage.” The United States, while acknowledging slavery and racism, remains in denial of the treatment of Black Americans during AND after slavery. In biographical and autobiographical accounts, many captives who were brought over as slaves recall the brutal conditions of being confined in the ship’s cargo hold. Amistad, the slave ship in which, an infamous revolt occurred in 1839—watch the 1997 film by Steven Spielberg—the captives recounted the “treatment” of “sick” slaves…they were chained together and thrown overboard to drown. In addition, when the crew made sexual advances towards the captives, or if some of the captives had free range of the ship, then those captives would jump overboard rather than suffer bondage. The statement made by Erik Killmonger displays his American upbringing and knowledge surrounding slavery and colonialism.

Now, what do all of those scenes mean? While Black Panther is a “stand alone” film amongst the rest of the Marvel Cinematic Universe, it is one of the best MCU films, currently. Yet, the movie took the time to further its impact on the targeted audience. It’s a shame that these references are lost amongst everyone else. At the same time, do Black Americans remember how dangerous Boko Haram is?

Knowing What to Love on Valentine’s Day

Valentine’s Day is supposed to be a day about (courtly) love. However, it started off as an acknowledgement to a man who—during the Roman Empire—was jailed for performing forbidden marriages. In other words, Saint Valentine of Rome was jailed for performing acts of rebellion that he believed was the right thing to do. How many other people in human history have died for the same thing? Please note that February is Black History Month.

Today, a shooting in Denmark occurred because there Lars Wilks, a cartoonist from Sweden—who depicted a parodied version of Mohammed—, was attending a forum about free press. Today’s Denmark shootings are a reminder of what occurred in France 3 weeks ago! Apparently, al-Qaeda has a “Most Wanted” list which Stephane Charbonnier, Terry Jones, and Salman Rushdie are on, which is why this shooting occurred. It makes you wonder if Trey Parker and Matt Stone have a secret to all the mocking and avoiding they’ve done over the years.

This year for Valentine’s Day, in addition to reminding ourselves of who we love, we should also take time to recall what we love. At the moment, simple joys of life are costing us simple joys of love. Freedom of religion, press, and happiness are being taken away by a few who believe that one group deserves more than another group. Parodies and insults have existed for millennia, but societies forget how to take a joke, or even when something needs to be mentioned through comedic jokes. South Park and Family Guy are still on T.V. for a reason. Humor cartoonists and comedians are a necessity that we forget we need until something tragic happens. Practicing one’s religion in peace is a given right, but there is more about the few who causes harm while claiming that it is what their religion preaches.

Earlier this week, madman Craig Stephen Hicks shot and killed three college students in North Carolina “after a dispute over a parking space.” Just like the victims’ families—and to the rational mind—no one actually believes that is what happened. Those innocent people were killed because they were practicing Muslims. There is a federal investigation taking place, but who knows what conclusions will be revealed. At the same time, there has been no recent news about John Crawford and/or Tamir Rice. And, several States are attempting to overturn gay marriage.

I think it is time to look again at what is happening in the world and remind ourselves what would happen if we did not have the rights that everyone throughout the world is trying to hold on to. Yes, the world wants to fight ISIL/ISIS and their extreme radical notions, but in the United States, we are killing and segregating people due to their religious beliefs and/or physical appearances. Yes, the Islamic faith does not believe in there being a physical depiction of their prophet, but death threats and assassination attempts are not the answer. Then again, the scandal surrounding #GamerGate has not faded from media coverage.

In the United States, it seems no “minority” is safe whether Indian, Black, Muslim, or LGBT. The U.S. got to add Deah Shaddy Barakat, Yusor Mohammad Abu-Salha, and Razan Mohammad Abu-Salha to the “victims’ list,” which already had Trayvon Martin, Medgar Evers, Harvey Milk, and Addie Mae Collins on it. These United States citizens were either living his or her life or trying to make life better for others like themselves. However, people forget that terrorism exists in the United States, too.

So, like the legacy left behind by Saint Valentine, let us remember the different types of love we enjoy in our everyday lives. We get to love each other. We get to love the freedoms—press, religion, and happiness—that are still being fought for each and every day and have cost the lives of so many. Remain vigilant and hopeful! Vigilantism does not and should not involve innocent lives! Remember who and what you love!