Speculative Fiction: A Label for the Growing Spectrum of the Genres: Fantasy, Science Fiction & Horror

*My 100th Blog Post!*

For the past year in which I have devoted more time to working on my blog, I have gained a larger audience—followers, readers and other supporters—than I thought possible. Remember, even the most successful bloggers and vloggers start out as “small channels” and are thankful for those who support them. I feel the same way. Knowing that you all have taken the time to read, to comment, to subscribe/follow, and to share my content is a great feeling. I’m extremely grateful for all of you, and it’s because of you all I know what I’m doing is being appreciated by the macrocosm. 

            One of several topics I’ve been discussing with other fans, readers, bloggers and vloggers is the concept of genre and the limitations its definition bestows upon it. The notion that genres can and should be placed within “fixed” classifications is similar to the concept that gender is binary—which, it isn’t! Over the last 100 years, the genres have become more ubiquitous and more successful due to books written by L. Frank Baum, J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis, T.H. White, J.K. Rowling, Frank Herbert, Arthur C. Clarke, Octavia Butler, Samuel R. Delany, Ursula K. LeGuin, Shirley Jackson, Isabel Allende, Haruki Murakami, Alan Moore, Stephen King, Anne Rice, etc. And, due to movies such as: The Invasion of the Body Snatchers, E.T., the Extraterrestrial, Star Wars, Star Trek, Pan’s Labyrinth, Akira, etc. Toward the end of the 20th century, other formats of literature and visual entertainment such as comics, graphic novels, manga, video games and music were becoming more popular and expansive. Imports from around the world—i.e. Japan, India, Spain, etc.—have presented popular works of these genres to fans as well. 

            Before the 2000s—I want to say around the 1970s—an emergence of works were presented and released to the public. Besides the Harry Potter Phenomenon and The Lord of the Rings movies, there was Buffy, the Vampire Slayer, The Matrix, and the continued book releases by Stephen King, Anne Rice and Robert Jordan. In addition, video games were growing in popularity and in addition to Mario, Sonic and Zelda there were Final Fantasy, Resident Evil and Shin Megami Tensei. Even those who weren’t reading the books, watching the TV shows or movies, or playing the video games were exposed to fantasy, science fiction and horror. Yet, why did some people prefer Harry Potter over The Lord of the Rings? What was it about Laurell K. Hamilton’s books that had some readers prefer her books over Anne Rice’s? What is it about Shin Megami Tensei, which has several spinoffs—including Persona—that has more of a cult fan base that players find appealing? 

            What I’m getting at is: how would you describe a book like The Northern Lights/The Golden Compass, the Dragon Quest video game series (besides Japanese role-playing games, or JRPGs), or even the Batman comics? Yes, one is a Young Adult novel, one is a JRPG, and the last is a superhero comic book series; but, aren’t there other genres to classify these works besides their marketing ones? Philip Pullman’s His Dark Materials Trilogy is a blend of fantasy, science (fiction), religion and philosophy—what did you expect from an Oxford professor? Dragon Quest is a JRPG with elements from the fantasy and adventure genres. Batman—one of the oldest and greatest superhero series of all-time—is a gritty and dark story about a traumatized man who uses his wealth and his wits to go up against the most dangerous criminals in his city. Nowadays, we would consider Batman to be a psychological thriller superhero series with elements of grimdark. Then again, with the recent success of the TV shows Game of Thrones and The Walking Dead, there were many non-readers and fans who said things like, “I don’t like fantasy, but I love Game of Thrones,” or “I don’t like zombies, but The Walking Dead is a great show,” etc. Yes, those shows were media adaptations, which are examples of fantasy and dystopia books that “divert” from “traditional” or “familiar” tropes. However, there are fans of those tropes who are not interested in neither the TV show nor the books. So, why are those the exceptions? They are NOT!

            Speculative fiction is a term that is being used more and more in order to describe literature and media that fall under the “traditional” genres of science fiction, fantasy, horror and comics. According to Marek Oziewicz, speculative fiction, “includes fantasy, science fiction, and horror, but also their derivatives, hybrids, and cognate genres like the gothic, dystopia, weird fiction, post-apocalyptic fiction, ghost stories, superhero tales, alternate history, steampunk, slipstream, magic realism, fractured fairy tales and more,” (3). In other words, speculative fiction includes: urban fantasy, mythological fantasy, zombies, paranormal, space operas, metaphysical, silkpunk, occult, military, historical, romance, etc., etc. Any and all of the genres and subgenres makeup this term.

            So why do some people—authors, writers, readers, critics, academics, fans—use this term? It’s because there are times when a medium either has more than two genres associated within it or displays aspects of speculative fiction that doesn’t fall under any of the “fixed” genres. For example, the Super Mario Bros. franchise is a video game series classified under both “action/adventure” and “platformer,” but could it be categorized in the fantasy genre due to the levels being in an imaginary world, or could it fall under horror or paranormal due to the ghosts and the skeletons, or even science fiction, especially in the context of the Super Mario Galaxy games? In this case, the term speculative fiction would fit best for this gaming franchise. I should mention that I’m not the one who should be recategorizing video games. Then again, this is proof that the term speculative fiction is becoming both recognizable and interchangeable. 

            Speculative fiction seems to become the more acceptable them to use when explaining works and forms of non-mimetic fiction without listing all of the many subgenres associated with it. Recent examples include The Broken Earth Trilogy by N.K. Jemisin and Gods of Jade and Shadow by Silvia Moreno-Garcia. The first has been categorized under fantasy, science fiction, dystopian literature and magic realism (the last one was on Amazon); and, the second has been categorized under fantasy, mythology, magic realism and historical fiction. Which is easier: listing all of those genres and subgenres in a description, or saying speculative fiction containing elements of certain genres and subgenres such as: a story about the end of the world and Mayan Gods during the Jazz Age? While speculative fiction is an umbrella term, many of us have been using it as a shortcut to explain a collection of books, films and video games. 

            Another factor surrounding speculative fiction concerns education and academia. How many of you remember reading Edgar Allan Poe and/or Turn of the Screw by Henry James in school and in college? How many of you remember reading The House of the Spirits, One Hundred Years of Solitude, or Haroun and the Sea of Stories in school or in college? And, how many of you remember reading one of the many dystopian books: Lord of the Flies, A Handmaiden’s Tale, 1984, Fahrenheit 451, The Giver, Brave New World, etc., in school and in college? Now, how many fantasy, fairy tales, and myths and legends were assigned to you after primary/elementary school? Keep in mind, there are courses and electives about these genres in college, but not everyone gets to take those classes (I was lucky enough to do so). Without going into too much detail, I’ve had disputes about fantasy literature with a few academic professors. Some of them believe that fantasy has no place in higher education except for in Children’s and Adolescent Literature (i.e. teaching, library science). However, scholars are responsible for some of the most recognized works in fantasy. Lewis Carroll, J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis and Philip Pullman were Oxford professors. In addition, there are academic scholars who study and write books and articles about fantasy, science fiction and horror such as: Edward James, Farah Mendlesohn, John Grant, Nnedi Okorafor, John Clute, Jack Zipes and Tzvetan Todorov. This history and the study of these genres are just as essential as reading the fiction. I hate to say it, but speculative fiction seems to be the “safer” and the “more acceptable” term to use when it comes to discussing these genres. 

            So, why do I use the term speculative fiction? My simplest answer is because it signifies all of the genres I enjoy to read, to watch, to write and to game the most. Saying speculative fiction instead of the longlist of genres and subgenres is the easiest and the quickest way to describe certain works of media. If a book can be categorized in more than one genre or subgenre, then why not save the breakdown for a discussion with others in a fandom, or with authors and publishers? Most important, using the term speculative fiction does not limit the story of any medium to one genre. It allows a fan of a metaphysical book to say that “there’s elements of fantasy in this story,” or “the religion in this book is based on the myths and the history of this ancient civilization.” Speculative fiction is a term that allows an audience to observe the broader spectrum of a medium with similar beginnings and interconnecting styles of storytelling. However, there will continue to be moments where a book is categorized as “hard sci-fi,” a video game is of the “horror” genre, and Disney continues to fracture fairy tales. This is the new Golden Age of Speculative Fiction so we might as well enjoy everything that is presented to us while opening the doors for an open interpretation. 

            Thank you for reading my post(s), following my blog and my social media pages! Here’s to many more posts in the future and to several open discussions! Please like and comment here or on my other posts; and, be sure to check out the following references about our favorite genre(s). 


James, Edward and Farah Mendlesohn, editors. The Cambridge Companion to Fantasy. Cambridge University Press, 2012.  

James, Edward and Farah Mendlesohn, editors. The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction. Cambridge University Press, 2003. 

Martin, Philip. A Guide to Fantasy Literature: Thoughts on Stories of Wonder & Enchantment. Crickhollow Books, 2009.

Oziewicz, Marek. “Speculative Fiction.” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Literature, March 2017, p.1-22. doi: 10.1093/acrefore/9780190201098.013.78

Stableford, Brian. The A to Z of Fantasy Literature. The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2009.  

TV Episode Review: “His Dark Materials: Armour”

This is the episode everyone has been waiting for! Armour is the episode in which, the audience is introduced to Lee Scoresby—played by Lin-Manuel Miranda—and Iorek Byrnison—voiced by Joe Tandberg. These characters are not only essential to the story because of the roles they’ll play in the future, but also because they explain more about the existence of daemons for more clarity. Viewers of the 2007 movie will see these characters portrayed differently; and, readers will rejoice at this faithfulness to the books. 

            Lyra Belaqua and the Gyptians arrive North at a port in order to stock up on supplies for the journey and to contact the Witches—including one named Serafina Pekkala—to ask for their alliance in getting the children back from the Gobblers. These are the scenes in which the other characters, and the audience, witness how Lyra uses and reads the alethiometer. Lyra’s abilities to read the alethiometer and the truth of her parentage has started to catch the attention of Mrs. Coulter, the Gyptians, the Witches’ Council, and the Magisterium. The audience will recall that the Master of Jordan College discovered something about Lyra, and he was trying his best to keep her safe to the extent (and the extremes) of his status. 

            Meanwhile, Mrs. Coulter continues to demonstrate her cunningness and her abilities as a power player within the Magisterium. She knows her previous actions went against their instructions and the law, but Mrs. Coulter manages to evade them because she’s already a few steps ahead of the Magisterium. She has made an alliance with the King of the Armoured Bears—yes, I’m using the British English spelling for this review—and they have someone both she, and the Magisterium, want.   

            Once again, these scenes are straight from the books with the exception of the bar fights. That scene was meant to present the demeanor and the skills Lee Scoresby has and what that means for the Gyptians as they continue their journey further North. Iorek Byrnison is presented to us as Armoured Bears are supposed to be; he’s a strong and fearless fighter, and he isn’t afraid to let everyone know. The Gyptians have the alliance of the Witches and Lyra manages to gain the alliance of both of these fighters for the rescue mission. The rescue party has assembled, and they are off to save the missing children. 

            Just like other media adaptations in recent years, we’ve seen actors transcend from one popular media series to another. So far, we’ve seen Narnia, X-Men, and Game of Thrones. This episode has a character from the Harry Potter movies. Do you know who it is? Did you recognize that individual in the role they were playing?  

My Rating: 10 out of 10

The Bittersweet Conclusions that are Coming in April 2019

Note: There are some spoilers and theories surrounding Game of Thronesand the MCU. I don’t have any knowledge of what’s going to happen in either Game of Thronesor Endgame.

Just like everyone else, I’m excited for both Season 8 of Game of Thrones and Avengers: Endgame. Both the television show and the movie are continuations of popular media adaptations of speculative fiction. Each one will pick up after a “shocking” ending, and the fandom has no idea what to expect in these upcoming installments. George R.R. Martin has announced that there will be differences in his final two books from the TV show. Marvel and Disney have announced some of the upcoming movies for “Phase Four” of the Marvel Cinematic Universe—Spider-Man: Far From Home and maybe an appearance of the Defenders (?). So yes, no one knows what to expect in April 2019 except for action and heartache. 

            Before I go into the obvious differences here are the similarities. Both Game of Thronesand Endgamewill take place after the characters suffer a major lost and are working to fight and to survive in the final showdown. Both involve forces in which there is little to no knowledge about. And, both have confirmed deaths of many of its characters. How will The North win against The Night King? What methods will be used to defeat Thanos and return the other half of the universe’s population? Who is going to die, because not everyone makes it to the end? Fans of either or both are anticipating finales that will destroy them emotionally. The actors and the actresses did admit to crying at the end of shooting their parts. Will it be the same for us? 

            Game of ThronesSeason 8 promises us epic battle sequences, lots of CGI, and several deaths. George R.R. Martin has told his readers to expect a “bittersweet” ending in the books, which should be reflected in the show. And, because the show has diverted from the books so much, it will be difficult to determine which of the minor characters are going to die. In terms of the major characters, Jamie and Cersei are definitely going to die; at least one more Stark will die; and, Winterfell will provide a winning strategy for surviving—and hopefully winning—the war. As for the minor characters, anyone is fair game. Although we didn’t see any footage in the trailer, the Battle for King’s Landing is going to be as epic as the Battle for the Dawn. 

            Less than two weeks after the premiere of the final season of Game of ThronesAvengers: Endgamewill be released in theaters. This latest entry in the Marvel Cinematic Universe takes place a few months after Thanos snapped his fingers. The surviving teammates are scattered and are brainstorming on how to defeat Thanos. There isn’t much to go on except that there will be a final showdown of some sort; Captain Marvel will make her appearance to both the Avengers and the Guardians of the Galaxy; and, at least one of the remaining Avengers—Captain America—will die. Thus, paving the way for Civil War II—read the graphic novel. However, it has already been confirmed that the characters who died before the “Snap” will remain dead (?). This plot device is there to implicate lasting repercussions to Thanos’ actions.

            April 2019 will give us the conclusions to the media storylines we want so badly, or do we? All we know about the anticipated features is that there will be a bittersweet ending to both of them. And yes, there have been clues in the previous seasons and movies, it is not clear what will happen. Unfortunately, the books don’t give us any additional hints. With human history to accompany us, viewers and fans should have an idea of how gut-wrenching these viewing experiences will be.

            I know I’ll be watching both media adaptions of these franchises; and yes, I’ll continue to read and to watch anything else related to them. But, am I prepared for the emotional train wreck that is part of these endgames? If the actors and the actresses were emotional, then what does that mean for us? All the same, I need to quench my curiosity because the buildup has been too much. I Need to Know How It All Ends!

My Theory on George R.R. Martin’s Writing “Plan” for A Song of Ice and Fire

What do you believe is going on with George R.R. Martin’s writing process?

Like many other fans and readers of A Song of Ice and Fire series, we have been waiting for a very long time for Winds of Winter. A Dance with Dragons was published in 2011, a few weeks after the first season of Game of Thrones ended. Now, the eighth and final season is being filmed, and there is still no word on the progress of Winds of Winter. The last rumor that many fans believed was that several preview chapters were pulled from the Internet for editing. Now, with the television adaptation diverging beyond the books, the only thing many of us are hoping for is that the books will continue its own narrative, and not reiterate what was changed for television too much.

Now, while I’m sure Reddit and Tower of the Hand have several theories and ideas about when Winds of Winter is going to be announced/published, and whether or not there will be three more books instead of two, this is my theory based on what other authors have said and done in similar scenarios, and G.R.R.M.’s writing style. However, I’m not familiar with all of those theories. I hear some of them when I participate in live chats on YouTube. And, for the record, I have made a similar theory/prediction in the past. I was one of a few who brought up and defended the theory surrounding the potential release date for the novel, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, on 07/07/2007. As some of us may or may not remember, J.K. Rowling herself had to reject that theory.

While it has been over seven years since the fifth book in the A Song of Ice and Fire series was published, fans continue to enjoy the TV show, novellas, graphic novel adaptations, and fan chats surrounding the series. However, we remain curious as to when Winds of Winter will be released. I don’t believe there will be an additional book in the series. I believe we will get two very long novels to end it. I don’t believe George R.R. Martin will “pull a Robert Jordan (R.I.P.).” There is a children’s fantasy author and folklorist by the name of Alan Garner who released the final book in the Weirdstone trilogy, Boneland, 49 years after the release of the second novel! I doubt we’ll have to wait that long!

My theory might not be original, and many of you might want to disprove this idea immediately, but hear me out. I believe George R.R. Martin is writing both Winds of Winter and A Dream of Spring, consecutively. In other words, G.R.R.M. is writing both books as one long narrative. Remember the “split” that was A Feast for Crows and A Dance with Dragons? Maybe, G.R.R.M. is writing nonstop and without considering an “end” of one novel and a “start” of the other novel. This method of writing could prevent a longer wait period between the two novels. Also, George would not be the first author to write a long epic as “one piece.” For example, J.R.R. Tolkien wrote The Lord of the Rings as a single text. The novel was split because of the paper shortage at the end of World War II.

Why would I come up with a theory such as this? It is because of what George said about the end of his series, the “final showdown” will start in Winds of Winter and carry over into A Dream of Spring. Too much will be occurring for it to be saved for the last book. Not that I’m trying to guess the potential ending in Winds of Winter, but I believe it’s safe to say that the climax happened in A Dance with Dragons, and the falling action will be taking place starting from Winds of Winter until the “resolution” at the end of A Dream of Spring. We, as readers, might get so caught up with the action within Winds of Winter that we won’t even realize that we’ve reached the end of the novel until the end of the novel. We can only wait.

So, what does my theory about G.R.R.M.’s writing process have to do with the last two books in the series? I believe that if George is writing both novels consecutively, then there is a chance that the wait period between Winds of Winter and A Dream of Spring will be short(er). That being said, George also said that there would be three more novellas in the Dunk and Egg series. Many of us readers know that there are hints and ties between these two series. I’m not saying that we will get all of these stories within consecutive years, but I doubt that we will have to wait five years or more in between the two novels. Maybe we’ll get an announcement after the final season of Game of Thrones premieres or ends? We can only wait.

Poll Results for “Who Dies in ‘Winds of Winter’ and is Already Dead on ‘Game of Thrones’?”

PLEASE NOTE: The following contains spoilers for both HBO’s Game of Thrones series and George R.R. Martin’s A Song of Ice and Fire series. If you have neither read, nor watched, then you have been warned.

This is a response to the poll: “Who Dies in Winds of Winter and is already dead on Game of Thrones?

I want to thank everyone who participated in this poll, including: apoiaf, Winter-Is-Coming.net, RedTeamReview, AltShiftX, Rawrist, GOT_Academy, and Thrones Amino for helping to promote this poll. Also, thanks to everyone else who participated.

There were 42 participants in this poll. And, like I mentioned in the poll, I will give my predictions surrounding the Top 5 leaders of this poll. In addition, I will mention the “Other” vote and offer my theory about that character as well.

  1. Barristan Selmy (Season 5) with 18 votes

I believe it is safe to say that there was some foreshadowing with Sir Barristan Selmy’s death when he was telling Daenerys Targaryen about Rhaegar. And, Sir Barristan died on the show the way he wanted, “as a knight.” Yet, it was still sad, and different because us readers know that Sir Barristan will be leading the defensive attack on Meereen in Winds of Winter. So, the question is, will he die during one of the battles in the next book?

On the one hand, it would make sense for the remaining members of Mad King Aerys’ Kingsguard to die by the end of the series. Many of us all ready expect Jamie Lannister to die by the end of the series, and hopefully, the remaining “Soiled” Kingsguard accepted after Robert’s Rebellion will be eradicated, also. On the other hand, maybe Barristan Selmy will survive the wars in Essos and in Westeros and help reestablish the Kingsguard to the way it was during the Targaryen reign.


      2. Jojen Reed (Season 4) with 14 votes

With the way Jojen died in the season 4 finale, and with the “Jojen Paste” theory being accepted by most readers, it’s safe to say that Jojen probably died a swift death on the show. Bran Stark has been having visions and has not seen Jojen since his training with the Three-Eyed Raven. However, while it is known by readers, and Jojen, that Jojen will die in the nearer future (by the end of the series), Jojen probably won’t die until after his father, Howland Reed, Jojen and Meera’s father, makes his appearance in the books (wherever he is in Westeros).

This does not mean that Howland will meet up with Jojen and Meera Beyond the Wall before Jojen’s death. Yet, Jojen will die around the time Howland Reed appears. And, Jojen’s death will not be as quick as it was on the show. Poor, poor Jojen.


      3. Mance Rayder (Season 5) with 6 votes

Mance Rayder was sentenced to death by Stannis Baratheon, and was being burned alive by Melisandre, until Jon Snow shot an arrow through his heart as mercy. And, that was only in the first episode of season 5. His name is mentioned constantly through the rest of that season, but Mance is dead.

In the books, Melisandre casted a glamor on Mance and it was Rattleshirt who was burned by Stannis, not Melisandre. After learning this, Jon Snow blackmails Mance by using his infant son (who is actually switched with Gilly’s baby boy to protect him) in order to have him and some Free Folk rescue “Arya” from the Boltons at Winterfell. Mance, Theon Greyjoy, and the 6 spear wives manage to rescue “Arya,” who is actually Jeyne Poole, but Bolton’s men are pursuing them.

Mance Rayder’s fate is currently unknown because Jon Snow receives a “(pink) letter” signed by Ramsay Snow/Bolton stating that he has captured Mance and will kill him if his bride is not returned to him. We do know that Mance and his party were not able to escape Winterfell with Theon and “Arya,” and for all we know they are still at Winterfell and trapped there.

As for Mance’s death, if he is not already dead, then there is a strong chance that he will be slain at the Battle of Winterfell in Winds of Winter. He is close enough to where the Boltons, the Wildlings, Stannis Baratheon’s army, and the Northmen are, so he will be present at the battle. Who kills Mance Rayder is still a mystery, but he will died at Winterfell.


       4. Xaro Xhoan Daxos (Season 2) with 1 vote

This member of the Thirteen met his end by being locked in a vault that has one key at the end of season 2. However, Xaro Xhoan Daxos is still alive and meets Daenerys in Meereen. He no longer wants a dragon because, “I saw their work at Astapor,” (ADwD, chap. 16, Daenerys III). Yet, he is willing to counsel Daenerys to prevent a war in Essos. When Daenerys refuses Xaro Xhoan Daxos’ gift of the 13 ships to send her and her army to Westeros, he, representing Qarth, declares war on Daenerys.

It is theorized that when Daenerys emerges from Vaes Dothrak, she will be a “true Targaryen Conqueror” and spread “Fire and Blood” to all of her enemies before going to Westeros. Daenerys will not hesitate to have her dragons burn Qarth to the ground and feed Xaro Xhoan Daxos to them. Hopefully, the dragons swallow him whole.


     5. Prat Pree (Season 2) with 1 vote

This warlock survived the burning of the House of the Undying by Drogon, Daenerys’s dragon, and now wants revenge against Daenerys. It is implied that Prat Pree and 3 other warlocks from Qarth left to find Daenerys, but were captured by Euron Greyjoy instead. Euron brought the warlocks to the Iron Islands for the Kingsmoot.

However, it is unclear if any of the warlocks are traveling with Victarion, Euron’s brother. Yet, there are hints that Prat Pree is with Victarion on the voyage to Meereen. There are 2 questions: one, does Prat Pree want to get closer to Daenerys in order to get more power from her dragons? Two, will Prat Pree die by the “hand” of Victarion when he does try to kill Daenerys?


     6. Other and Honorable Mention: Stannis Baratheon (Season 5) with 1 vote

I’m going to mention Stannis Baratheon because there were some other people who asked about him, and I read a few posts about him online. The main reason I didn’t include Stannis is because he dies in the season 5 finale on the show. And, the show’s producers and actors had to tell us that Stannis was dead because we did not see him die onscreen.

However, with what is happening to Stannis Baratheon in the books—Theon and Asha Greyjoy are his prisoners, winter has arrived in the North and many of his men are starving and/or dying, and the Battle of Winterfell has not occurred yet—Stannis cannot die so quickly, but he could still die in the next book.

Also, at the Wall, Selyse and Shireen Baratheon are with Melisandre, and Jon Snow was just stabbed by some members of the Night’s Watch. Stannis needs to come to his realization that Melisandre was wrong about him being Azor Ahai, but that does not mean he will not stop fighting for the Iron Throne. Remember, nothing about the Targaryens have been mentioned to the majority of the citizens in Westeros. Only Dorne and the Iron Islands have heard the news. As far as the rest of Westeros is concerned, Stannis still has the better claim to the Iron Throne.



These are my predictions for Winds of Winter. Thanks again to everyone that participated. Please check my blog in the future for more “theories” about A Song of Ice and Fire, and my other thoughts and ideas about other issues.

The Mirrors of Jamie Lannister: Who Does the “Kingslayer” Remind You Of?

(Note: Spoilers from A Song of Ice and Fire series, the Harry Potter series and the Legends of King Arthur.)

Jamie Lannister—the prodigy of the Seven Kingdoms, the youngest ever to join the legendary Kingsguard, the eldest son of Lord Tywin Lannister, the man who fucked his twin sister—the Queen of the Seven Kingdoms. The “Kingslayer,” at first, appears to be your typically over-confident rich boy who uses his family name to get what he wants. Well, that is true. And yet, by the time he becomes a P.O.V. character in A Song of Ice and Fire series, we view things from his angle (obviously) and get a full understanding of the man.

Jamie Lannister is a very complicated person, almost at the level of Severus Snape from the Harry Potter series (I mean that in terms of personality, nothing else). For instance, both characters proved to be very talented in their areas of study that were expected from them. Severus Snape was so talented as a young wizard at Hogwarts he corrected the “mistakes” in his spell books. Jamie Lannister was deemed a prodigy swordsman by age ten.

Next, both men appear to be haughty and fixated on “revenge” against an individual, but we later find out that it is self-pity and annoyance surrounding the ignorance of past events that drives them. Snape joined the Death Eaters while he was still at Hogwarts. As time past, he eventually realized that the group had more hatred than he could handle. But, when he tried to protect his childhood friend, Lily Potter, from Lord Voldemort, he failed and never forgave himself for her death. Throughout the series, Harry Potter believes that Snape hated him because he was more like his father than his mother. Yes, Snape and James Potter never got along because both of them were in love with the same woman, it could be argued that Snape hated Voldemort more for killing Lily.

Jamie Lannister joined the Kingsguard after being “persuaded” by his sister Cersei. What neither of them knew was that the relationship between Mad King Aerys and their father, the Hand of the King, was on edge. It was widely believed that King Aerys accepted Jamie only to humiliate Tywin Lannister by disinheriting his “heir.” It was also immediately after joining the Kingsguard that Jaime realizes that the vows of knighthood did not mirror the vows of the Kingsguard. Jamie believed that the duties of a knight were “to protect the weak and the innocent.” However, Jamie felt worthless the longer he remained within the Kingsguard. He wasn’t even allowed to protect Queen Rhaella when her husband was ravishing her violently. It was at the Sacking of King’s Landing that Jamie decided he had to step in for the “kingdom” instead of the king. He killed Mad King Aerys and his pyromancers before fire could be set to the entire capital. Unfortunately, the only witness to the incident was Lord Eddard Stark of Winterfell, and he had gotten inside the throne room after the deaths. Jamie knew that no matter what he said, truth or lie, he—a member of the Kingsguard—killed the King. Ned Stark would have seen it as dishonorable either way. So, Jamie becomes hateful towards Ned Stark simply because Ned Stark would not hear reason behind King Aerys’ murder.

Last, both characters are seeking redemption for their past actions. As of right now Snape managed to gain redemption, after death. According to J.K. Rowling, Harry Potter shares the memories of Snape with Professor McGonagall and several other wizards after the Battle at Hogwarts. Thus, it is proven that Snape was working with Professor Dumbledore the entire time and is praised for his actions. Jamie Lannister is trying to redeem his honor and that of the Kingsguard. While the Kingsguard is beyond his control in terms of “structure,” Jamie is focusing on making fair decisions throughout the kingdom and attempting to search, to find, and to protect the daughters of Lady Catelyn and Lord Eddard Stark, Sansa and Arya. Based on what George R.R. Martin has said, Jamie will attempt to, but never complete his journey for redemption. It is here when the comparisons between Jamie Lannister and Severus Snape stop. However, there is another fictional character that Jamie Lannister can be compared with.

Sir Lancelot is a character (or even a true person based on the legends) that many people throughout the world are familiar with. Most notably, he is one of the famous Knights of the Round Table, from King Arthur’s kingdom of Camelot. He was a good-looking, talented swordsman whose deeds proved him to be a “true” knight. That is the tale told within the numerous editions and variants of the story of Lancelot. However, no one is perfect. When Mordred—King Arthur’s bastard son with his half-sister, Morgause—reveals the love affair between Lancelot and Queen Guinevere, Camelot is thrown into a civil war, which brings about the end to the legendary kingdom. Hmm, this sounds very much like another popular story.

Jamie Lannister is most likely based on the character of Sir Lancelot, and to some extent King Arthur, from the Arthurian tales. Both men are handsome, are talented in the art of fighting, and are able to provide their talents for their king. Then, they commit adultery with their queen, and everything falls into chaos when the affair is revealed.

Sir Lancelot was said to be one of King Arthur’s best knights, and he was allowed to become part of King Arthur’s Knights of the Round Table. Jamie Lannister joined the Kingsguard when he was fifteen-years-old, the youngest ever to join the order in the Seven Kingdoms. Another thing both of these knights have in common is that they both love the queen they are supposed to serve and to protect. Sir Lancelot and Queen Guinevere (also spelled Gwenhwyfar) were in love with each other, but obviously Guinevere was already married to King Arthur (sounds like another romantic pair from A Song of Ice and Fire series, R+L=J!). In fact, some of the variants state that Sir Lancelot saved Queen Guinevere a few times when she was abducted or was in danger. However, this did not stop them from carrying out a love affair. When the affair is revealed, it is the distraction Mordred needed to start a war with King Arthur for rule over Camelot.

This is where Jamie Lannister mirrors King Arthur. King Arthur unknowingly sleeps with his half-sister, Morgause (or Morgan), and the result is Mordred, the (unacknowledged) bastard son of the king. Mordred was believed to have had a violent nature, and when his father left Camelot to fight a war, Mordred took complete control of the kingdom. Jamie Lannister carries an affair with his twin sister, Cersei, the Queen of the Seven Kingdoms, and that affair resulted in three children: Joffrey, Myrcella, and Tommen. The children are believed to be the heirs to King Robert Baratheon, until his brother, Stannis, and Jon Arryn, the Hand of the King, begin to suspect the parentage. Joffrey has a sadistic nature, and when Robert Baratheon dies, Joffrey ascends the throne and starts a full-out war within the Seven Kingdoms. Like Mordred, Joffrey dies, and everyone is happy to see him go.

Here’s where it gets interesting. Mordred mortally wounded King Arthur, and Arthur is “buried” at Avalon. As of right now, Jamie is still alive and nowhere near his remaining children. In addition, Jamie displays no grief after Joffrey dies because he believed him to be an ineffective ruler. On one hand, in comparison to Sir Lancelot, Jamie and Cersei have ended their “relationship,” and Jamie, like Lancelot, decides to live the rest of his life honorably while seeking redemption. On the other hand, Lancelot lives the rest of his life as a hermit and in penitence. When Lancelot does die, he is buried at his castle where his tomb was already waiting for him. Jamie Lannister is making his way across the Seven Kingdoms with several companions, which include other knights and members of his family. When he does die, will be buried where he died, like the other members of the Kingsguard before him. It is unlikely that Jamie will be buried at Casterly Rock with his ancestors.

In all, Jamie Lannister is based on two Arthurian characters: King Arthur and Sir Lancelot. However, I argue that Jamie Lannister reminds fans of Severus Snape. I know GRRM does NOT want his fans to assume that his fantasy series will be anything like J.K. Rowling’s, but there are times when it cannot be helped. It means that these fictional characters are so well developed that we can automatically think of another rounded characters. At the same time, because we have an idea of the inspirations surrounding A Song of Ice and Fire (and Harry Potter) we have several theories and educated guesses as to what could happen to these characters in future tales.

Who or What Is Shireen Baratheon supposed to be?

(Please Note: Spoilers from A Song of Ice and Fire series are found within this essay.)

Most of us has read, heard, or seen a version of The Iliad. The blind poet, Homer, is credited for compiling the epic tale of the Trojan War. The film, Troy (2004), has Achilles played by Brad Pitt, Sean Bean as Odysseus, and Orlando Bloom as Paris. However, like other media adaptations of literary and oral stories, little details are often left out. If one saw Helen of Troy (2003), then he or she would see more of what was part of the story.

Besides the backstory of how Helen became the pawn of the Trojan War, the audience saw more of what was happening within the kingdom of Sparta. For example, both Helen and her twin sister Clytemnestra marry brothers Menelaus and Agamemnon respectively. Helen and Menelaus have one daughter, Hermione; and Clytemnestra and Agamemnon have four children. One of who is their daughter, Iphigenia.

Iphigenia was the daughter who was sacrificed by her father in order to appease the goddess Artemis for favorable winds in order to sail to Troy. While it is unclear on the exact age of Iphigenia, the truth remains that the sacrifice brought the Greek Army to Troy. At the same time, Clytemnestra vowed vengeance against her husband for what he did to their daughter. The Trojan War lasted for 9 years with the Greeks sieging and destroying Troy. Helen returned to Sparta with her husband, and Agamemnon returned to Mycenae with Cassandra, the prophetess sister of Paris, as his prize. Soon after, Clytemnestra and her lover, Aegisthus, killed both Agamemnon and Cassandra as retaliation for Iphigenia’s death.

Shireen Baratheon is the daughter and only child of Stannis Baratheon and Selyse Florent. She almost died from grayscale and it left her disfigured. However, she is often described as being a sweet child. Her parents have renounced their religion of the Faith of the Seven and become worshippers of the Lord of Light, a religion from Essos, whose priestess is Melisandre, who is convinced that Stannis is the prophesized hero, Azor Ahai. While Stannis and Melisandre campaign throughout Westeros, Shireen is left at Dragonstone with her mother; her cousin, Edric Storm (a bastard); and her fool, Patchface.

Stannis’ campaign has led him to use dark magic provided by Melisandre. This magic had killed his brother, Renly; Cortnay Penrose, a guardian of Edric Storm and Renly’s castellan; and, Maester Cressen. However, Stannis believes that the magic has assisted him so far with “removing” his adversaries, and was considering sacrificing his brother’s bastard son until Davos Seaworth, his Hand, smuggled him out of Westeros. This was because Melisandre believed that “king’s blood” would “wake the dragons from stone” which would prove and provide Stannis’ status as King of the Seven Kingdoms.

King Robert Baratheon had sixteen bastard children, most of who were killed on the orders of Queen Cersei Lannister—to hide her infidelities and the parentage of her children. In addition to Edric Storm, only Mya Stone, Gendry, and Bella are what remain of the bastards. However, those who are looking for them do not know where they are in Westeros. So, what does this mean for Stannis and his “blood sacrifice” for dragons?

I believe you see where this is going based on what I started with, but that is because the series author, George R.R. Martin, has admitted that Greek and Roman mythology are huge influences in A Song of Ice and Fire. Additionally, there was some foreshadowing about what might happen to Shireen in A Dance with Dragons. It was when the wildling Val told Jon Snow that Shireen was “unclean” and should be killed due to her grayscale. It was then that Jon Snow observes that Queen Selyse is fond of Shireen, but like her husband, would put their efforts for the crown before their family’s well being if the Melisandre told them to.

The story of Azor Ahai states that when the hero forged his sword for the third time, he drove it into the thing he loved most, his wife, Nissa Nissa, and the sword was named “Lightbringer.” It was then that Azor Ahai was able to defeat the Others, their creatures, and the “Long Night.” Sounds very much like the story of Agamemnon and his daughter, Iphigenia.

Now, Selyse, Shireen, and Melisandre are at Castle Black while Stannis continues his campaign to get support from the Northerners. Between the wildings’ beliefs and Melisandre’s visions, Shireen’s chances for survival are looking grim. Victory for the Baratheons is starting to outweigh rational thinking, and even Melisandre does not understand some of the visions she has been receiving. Melisandre says that “king’s blood” will raise the dragons and give Stannis the power that he needs. All that is left of Stannis’ blood—as far as he knows—is his daughter, Shireen. Does Stannis reflect Agamemnon? Is Shireen supposed to be Iphigenia?

There are two more books and several character plots that are neither complete nor revealed. There is a possibility that Stannis will gain support from the North. There is a possibility that Melisandre is wrong about who the reincarnation of Azor Ahai really is. All the same, no one knows what to expect from a novel written by George R.R. Martin. And yet, I believe that Shireen Baratheon is going to end up becoming a sacrifice for someone whether or not anyone wants to believe otherwise. Remember, the sword is a fake!

How William Faulkner Influenced George R.R. Martin

(Please Note: Spoilers from A Song of Ice and Fire series are found within this essay.)

Remember those boring classics you had to read in your English classes in high school and in college? Well, have you ever considered that some of what you had to read might be hidden within the pages of what you choose to read? Then there is what you had to learn in your history class—both of your country and of other ones—do you recall anything beyond Abraham Lincoln and/or Archduke Ferdinand? Even the smallest details and events can grow into something more intense or…more entertaining.

Some influences of this series are more obvious than others. The A Song of Ice and Fire series is based on some of the following: Greek and Roman mythologies, the history of the United Kingdom, and some American literature, most notably the works of William Faulkner. Much of fantasy literature also is influenced by classical literature, other mythologies, languages, and superstitions. In addition, the belief system is based on the time period of the fictional world. George R.R. Martin’s Westeros and Essos reflects the social behaviors of the Medieval Period.

With regards to the myths, it is safe to say that some of the female characters are based on the stories we have heard over and over again. Homer’s The Iliad and The Odyssey are the most notable texts which we see where the characters Cersei Lannister and Lyanna Stark are based on. It is safe to assume that Lyanna Stark is based on Helen of Troy, the woman whose “face launched a thousand ships.” Helen of Sparta was married to King Menelaus when Prince Paris of Troy “abducted” her, causing the Trojan War. The war lasted seven years, many from both sides died including Paris and Achilles, Troy was burnt to the ground, and Helen returned to her husband. From what fans know—based on the books and the T.V. show—Lyanna Stark was “stolen” from her family and her betrothed, Robert Baratheon, by Prince Rhaegar Targaryen. As we all know, the Starks and the Baratheons went to war against the Targaryens in order to return Lyanna to her family. She would never return there alive. Lyanna, like Helen of Troy, must have been very beautiful if she was able to catch the eye of a prince and start a civil war because of it.

Cersei sounds a lot like the name ‘Circe,’ the powerful sorceress mentioned in The Odyssey, and whom turned Odysseus’ companions into swine. Circe was also known to attract men with her charm and her beauty. Cersei Lannister, as we all know, has used her beauty and her (limited) charm to get whatever she wanted. She even seduced her twin brother, Jamie, into doing what she told him to do. The most infamous was telling Jamie to join the Kingsguard so they could be together in King’s Landing (and we all know what happens next). It should be mentioned that both Circe and Cersei are eventually seen for what they really are; however, Cersei Lannister’s exposure was more extreme than Circe’s.

We have seen numerous religions and common superstitions within Martin’s novels and we have seen how devote many of the characters are to them as well as other beliefs and practices of other cultures. Many of the religious beliefs and the superstitions found within this series mirrors what was taking place in England between the Dark Ages and the Renaissance. Some of the behaviors surrounding the treatment of guests go back to the practices of Ancient Greece (i.e. no harm can come to your guest while they are under you hospitality) and were still practiced as well. We know that Christianity—particularly Catholicism—was the main religion of Europe. And yet, Judaism, Islam, and Paganism still existed and was practiced by other denizens in the same continent. Many of the superstitions we believe in today emerged during the Middle Ages: walking under a ladder was bad luck, a black (or in England a white) cat crossing your path was bad luck, etc. Also, many believed that the skies told what was to come. Even Queen Elizabeth I had diviners and astrologers visit her in court on a weekly basis. She was often curious as to what her future would be, and it is unclear to most of us if she liked what was foretold.

George R.R. Martin used history as a premise for A Song of Ice and Fire. His chosen event was England’s War of the Roses. For those of you who do not recall this war, noble families fought over control of the English Throne. Between 1455 and 1487, the nobility chose their allegiance between either House of York (The White Rose) or House of Lancaster (The Red Rose). Both Houses were able to trace their ancestry back to notable kings and these cousins believed they had a better claim to the throne over everyone else. This war started when Henry of Bolingbroke deposed his cousin Richard II in 1399, thus establishing House Lancaster. In 1422, after the death of Henry V, Richard, Duke of York, challenged the right to the crown against Henry VI. Thus, House York was established. Throughout the war, several royal cousins were killed or assassinated. The war was resolved when Henry Tudor of House Lancaster defeated Richard III and then married Elizabeth of York. House Tudor was established through the reunion of both houses. I will not go into the details any further than that. If anyone else is curious about the War of the Roses and how some of those events found their way into Westeros, then either read Philippa Gregory’s novels (great historical fiction) or watch the Monarchy documentaries that aired on PBS.

Those are the familiar influences of A Song of Ice and Fire. There is also a more modern influence on the series and it is from the United States. William Faulkner was an early 20th century writer who wrote most of his novels about the Southern United States. He was grouped with other American Southern literary writers, and is placed in the subgenre of the Southern Renaissance. This subgenre focused on both the “Lost Cause” of the Confederate States of America and the imaginary “pleasant culture” that existed in the Southern states before the American Civil War (think about Scarlett O’Hara’s experiences in Gone with the Wind). The plots were also centered around the burden of where many people remembered life before a devastating war, a family name and where an individual came from were more highly valued than one’s personal and social life, and the South’s troubled history in regards to racial issues. Now, the third one is not seen much within Martin’s novels, but physical appearances do make a difference when it comes to certain characters (i.e. Tyrion Lannister).

William Faulkner was one of the writers who used the technique of “stream of consciousness” in his writing. This style allows the “depiction of the multitudinous thoughts and feelings which pass through the mind,” also known as “interior monologue.” You see this more in his novel, The Sound and the Fury (1929); however, in his novel As I Lay Dying (1930), he identifies which characters are providing their ‘interior monologue’ by simply putting the name of the character at the beginning of each chapter. For that chapter’s duration that character becomes the protagonist. We still see this style done in contemporary fiction and children’s literature (i.e. Jodi Picoult, Rick Riordan). It is an interesting way to gain the point of view of each character at the same time when one event is taking place.

Now, that was the obvious influence William Faulkner has had on George R.R. Martin. I will get into one of my theories surrounding one of the noble families in A Song of Ice and Fire and how that is related to one of Faulkner’s most notable novels. Thus, this will show both the correlation and my predictions for this family. Faulkner’s novel, Absalom, Absalom! (1936), is an allusion to a wayward son who goes against his father’s wishes of upholding the family empire which the latter worked hard to build. The father wanted a son who would become part of society’s elite and make the family stronger. However, the son decides to forge his own destiny and while he commits some heinous acts, it turns out it was done for the better of both society and his family. Yes, I will be talking about the Lannisters.

          Absalom, Absalom! follows the history and the legacy of the Sutpen Family. The patriarch of the family is Thomas Sutpen who moves to Yoknapatawpha County in Mississippi in the 1830s and builds a plantation on 100 square acres of land, which he names ‘Sutpen’s Hundred.’ He is attempting to create his own personal dynasty by becoming a member of elite society in the Southern States. Thomas Sutpen knows that besides owning a plantation and a number of slaves, he would need sons to continue the legacy he is building up. Plus, he wants his future sons and their sons to take the responsibility seriously because he does not want his family to become a laughing stock the way it was when he was growing up in West Virginia with his own father and other family members. In addition, since he is doing this in the South before the American Civil War, his “design” cannot include anyone who can physically tarnish the family legacy. In other words, no Negro blood. In A Song of Ice and Fire series, Tywin Lannister has spent his entire life as the Lord of the Westerlands rebuilding his family’s reputation as being a strong and a fearsome House. His father, Tytos, was a weak lord who allowed both his bannermen and his servants to take advantage of him constantly. By the time Tywin became the (High) Lord of Casterly Rock, he had to spend the first few years of his rule ‘fixing’ the mistakes his father had made. As he was re-establishing his family’s reputation, Tywin was working on his family’s legacy. His beautiful wife, Joanna, gave birth to beautiful twins—Cersei and Jamie—whom he already made plans for their future. Cersei would become the next Queen of Westeros and Jamie would follow in his footsteps as the Lord of Casterly Rock.

According to the novel, Thomas Sutpen originally went to Haiti to start his family empire (http://www.mcsr.olemiss.edu/~egjbp/faulkner/gen-sutpen.html). He marries Eulalia Bon and they have a son they name Charles. However, Thomas Sutpen discovered that his wife was part black and he abandons his family and returns to the United States where he starts over again. He did this because he knew that he would never be part of a society that still had slavery and looked down at those who did not have a ” ‘pure’ white bloodline.” Thus, after he establishes himself in Mississippi, he marries Ellen Coldfield, the daughter of a prominent plantation owner in the county. They have two children, Henry and Judith, who now stand to carry on the Sutpen family legacy. Plus, Thomas Sutpen has a fourth child, Clytemnestra (named after the ‘lesser’ sister of Helen of Troy), with one of his Negro slaves (this was very common in American Slavery) and her role is to keep an eye out on her siblings for the better of the family. As of right now, everything seems to be going well…until Henry goes to college and befriends a classmate by the name of Charles Bon. Charles meets Judith and the two of them get engaged. This is when Thomas Sutpen realizes that Charles Bon is the son he abandoned several years ago, and he tells Henry that the marriage cannot happen because Charles is really his and Judith’s older half-brother. Henry reacts angrily believing that Charles knew about his parentage the entire time and he renounces his birthright. He goes to New Orleans and then enlists with the Confederate Army when the Civil War begins. When the war ends and Charles returns to Sutpen’s Hundred to marry Judith, Henry kills him at the gates to the plantation. Therefore, Henry ends up protecting his family by killing his own brother.

Tywin Lannister becomes the Hand of the King during the reign of Mad King Aerys. While he was respected by the other lords and the peasants throughout the kingdom, the two men began to have tension between them. Aerys II was in love with Tywin’s wife, Joanna, and everyone at court knew about it. And, Tywin was still hoping for an engagement between his daughter and Prince Rhaegar. During all of this, Cersei and Jamie were already experimenting sexually with each other, and Joanna was about to give birth to her third child. After the birth of son Tyrion, and the death of Joanna, Tywin was grief stricken and debating with himself whether or not Tyrion was actually his son because Tyrion is a deformed dwarf (which is another theory for another time). Tywin believes that since both he and his late wife were good looking and their two elder children are good looking, then Tyrion should have been as pretty as his other family members, which leads him to ask who else could have fathered Tyrion. Meanwhile, Tywin goes on with his plan to offer a betrothal between Cersei and Prince Rhaegar, which King Aerys refuses harshly. At the same time, the Lannister twins schemed a way to stay together so they can continue their incestuous relationship. Cersei convinces Jamie to join the Kingsguard, which meant that he would renounce his position as the heir of Casterly Rock. Jamie does so, Tywin finds himself twice spurned by the King and returns to his Seat with his daughter, thus leaving Jamie behind.

Now, both patriarchs reacted to their sons leaving them and their inheritance very differently. Thomas Sutpen, who has lost one son to death and the other one to exile, becomes a broken man and starts drinking. He is so desperate for a male heir, that he seduces and impregnates Milly Jones, the fifteen-year old granddaughter of another prominent plantation owner. Even though Charles fathered a son, Charles Etienne de Saint Velery, with his octoroon mistress, Thomas’ grandson was not ideal for his ‘family design.’ Milly gives birth to a daughter, and before mother and child die from complications from the birth, Thomas Sutpen rejects the child because of the gender. Upon hearing this, Milly’s grandfather, Wash Jones, kills Thomas for what he did to his family. Tywin Lannister leaves the capital after being spurned twice by the King. Afterwards, he finds out that his other son married a common girl, Tysha, and forced Tyrion to ‘divorce’ her because he feared that the marriage might make the family a laughing stock within the kingdom again. This happened, after Tywin’s entire guard raped her in front of Tyrion. When Robert’s Rebellion started, Tywin kept himself neutral until the end so that he could put himself with the winning side. After Robert Baratheon kills Prince Rhaegar, and Jamie kills King Aerys, Tywin sends his army into the castle where he has “The Mountain” murder the remaining members of the Targaryen family: Elia Martell—Rhaegar’s wife—and their young children, Rhaenys and Aegon. Playing his role in disposing the royal family, Tywin has the newly crowned King Robert marry Cersei, thus making her a queen and his family legacy a part of the royal bloodline. However, it never occurred to him that his twin children had and continued their incestuous relationship. Joffrey, Myrcella, and Tommen are the children of Cersei and Jamie, and there is neither Baratheon nor Targaryen blood in them. When Joffrey is killed and Tyrion is accused of his murder, Tywin has no problem in convicting him in order to rid himself of his ‘son.’ As we know, Tyrion loses the ‘trial by combat’ and is later freed by Jamie. And then, Tyrion goes on to murder Tywin for his cruelty to him and to his first wife, and after learning that Tywin has been sleeping with Shae, his prostitute. These powerful men are killed due to their own actions and both indirectly and directly by their sons. Thomas Sutpen and Tywin Lannister put their legacy before their children and it cost them heavily.

That was one part of the ‘family legacy,’ but what about the children and the remaining family members? In Absalom, Absalom!, forty years has gone by and the Sutpen Hundred plantation has fallen into ruin. Both Charles Etienne and Judith Sutpen died twenty years before and Clytemnestra has been taking care of both Jim Bond—the son of Charles Etienne and a free black woman, and the great grandson of Thomas Sutpen—and the plantation. When the sister of Ellen Coldfield goes to the plantation with the grandson of a family friend, they find Henry Sutpen—long believed to have left the region after murdering his brother—hiding inside the house all this time. On the day they return with an ambulance for Henry, Clytemnestra sets the entire manor on fire, killing both herself and Henry. Jim Bond, the last of the Sutpen family survives, but he is disabled both physically (skin color) and mentally. Thus, this is the end of the Sutpen Family Legacy as we know it.

Based on what has been foreshadowed within the series, we know that Cersei will die at the hands of a ‘younger brother’ and that all three of her children will die before she does. Also, with the brothers Tywin and Kevan dead, and Tyrion in exile, this means that Cersei is in charge of both her House and the Kingdom. To those of us who have come to know Cersei’s character know that this is not a good thing (a lot like Clytemnestra). Jamie, has finally decided to distance himself from his sister, but it is unknown what will happen to him now that he decided to stay with the Kingsguard. All of Tywin’s work to rebuild his House and to leave a strong family legacy has been destroyed by his own children. Just like with Thomas Sutpen, Tywin’s ‘design’ did not work out the way he wanted to, and tried to work with what was given to him. Instead, both patriarchs are not remembered for their kindness and the last of their family line are male heirs who are neither accepted by their family nor the rest of society. However, does this mean that the Lannister line will end with Tyrion? Yes, I am aware that there are other Lannisters, but as Tywin’s sister Genna said, “Tyrion is Tywin’s son.” Is Tyrion really Tywin’s son, or is it as Tywin always feared and could be the son of the Mad King? If this is the case, then like Thomas Sutpen, Tywin Lannister’s family legacy is about to come to an end.

This is my argument to how George R.R. Martin looked to William Faulkner to map out one family within his fantasy series. Literary influences on contemporary literature is not only limited—and it should not be limited—to classical works we had to read in school and in college. If we pay enough attention to what we have to read, then we can easily see what goes into what we like to read. All that is left now is to wait and to see whether or not the Lannisters will end up like the Sutpens. And, what will happen to Tyrion.

Beyond the Books and Expectations of What is Not in Them in Media Adaptations

           Since 2001, the public has seen several book to media adaptations. I am not calling it a trend because between all of the movies based on The New York Times bestsellers, comic books, and award winners, such adaptations have always been around. As with any movie (or television show), some of the media translations have been more successful and/or appropriate for the screen. Then, there are cases where an individual, or everyone else, is better off reading the book.

            Do not get me wrong, I enjoy watching these movies and television shows as much as anyone else does, but what should we expect from them? As always, many details from the books get omitted and/or changed as part of the transition. This has caused the separation and the formation of book fans and film fans. We have seen this with Harry Potter, A Song of Ice and Fire, and The Walking Dead. Small, but essential details have been left out from both the movie series and the television shows. Many readers had to clue in the viewers as to what was supposed to happen and/or what crucial facts should have been included. For example, how many non-readers know that one of the Hogwarts teachers was a ghost? Professor Binns was not in any of the movies. Then you have The Hobbit trilogy in which too much was added to the original story so that each film could be more than 2 hours long!

            In recent years, we have come to recognize that some adaptations make better T.V. shows than movies. We are realizing this with the D.C. Comics (i.e. Arrow, Smallville, Flash), and we have seen this with Game of Thrones. Based on the (low) fantasy series, A Song of Ice and Fire, the show’s first two seasons are accurately based on the first two books of the series (A Game of Thrones and A Clash of Kings). Seasons 3 and 4 are based on the third book, A Storm of Swords. However, given the fact that the series is still incomplete, the writers of the show know how the series will end. It can be said that both readers and viewers will be shocked at what gets revealed as the series continues beyond the books. Is it safe to say that this will be the first time this happens regarding an adapted series?

            Everyone remembers when Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s (Philosopher’s) Stone was released in 2001. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire was published the year before. The fourth book in the series and the first movie were released a year apart and there were no concerns about the movies catching up to the books. And yet, in 2007 when both Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix and Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows were released within 10 days of each other, it was known that more fans wanted to read the ending than relive a previous book through a movie. Thus, the movie was released before the book. And, there was more media coverage on the book than the movie.

            Now, even with the success of both the T.V. series and the books, Game of Thrones might be the first media adaptation which catches up to and surpasses the original books! And, this will not be like The Walking Dead and/or any anime series where ‘fillers’ are included to slow down the pace of the story. No, George R.R. Martin told T.V. writers, David Benioff and D.B. Weiss, the ‘important’ details regarding how the series will end. And, HBO announced that there will be four more seasons of Game of Thrones, which will reflect the remaining books in the series. Martin, who is still writing Winds of Winter and his other novels beyond A Song of Ice and Fire series, will most likely not complete A Dream of Spring until (way) after the final season of the show.

            What does this mean for the devote readers of this series? Most of them have been reading the books since 1996 when A Game of Thrones was published. I have read on a few websites (YouTube included) that some readers will stop watching the show once it catches up to the books. Others say that they enjoy both the show and the story too much to want to fall behind. Then, some are caught in the middle because they are unsure when (or if) Martin will finish the last book and they might not be able to wait that long to see which fan theories are correct or incorrect.

            My suggestion after watching and reading Harry Potter, The Lord of the Rings, Angels and Demons, and Jurassic Park, is the movies and the T.V. series are always different from the books. You will always hear readers say: “They changed this…,” or “They did not include this…,” etc. Are we really going to stop watching a good T.V. show because it will surpass the books in terms of ‘what happens next’? I was just as surprised as everyone else when the show included “The Night King” in Season 4 of Game of Thrones when we were not supposed to get the rest of those details until Winds of Winter! And yet, it felt like a teaser on what to expect from both later on. Readers who also watch the show will be able to enjoy the twists and the shocks along with those who only watch the show. Then, when Books 6 and 7 are released, we can read everything all at once: what we know and what we don’t know. For example, many of the dream sequences were omitted from the show because: one, it would have taken up too much time; and two, it would have ruined the foreshadowing ‘hidden’ within the content of the story. Characters have been left out and/or names have been changed in order to avoid too many characters and/or an overlap of names (and too avoid higher costs). However, finding out what happened to those characters (with their actual names) will be worth the wait.

            In conclusion, Game of Thrones should continue to be a popular show, but not because the show will surpass the plot of the books. Some will stop watching the show because they are fans of the books and want to keep reading them rather than watching what might occur within the story. However, I believe the shows’ ratings will still be high because all the fans will want to know what happens next, and everyone will be curious as to which episode Martin will be writing. By the time Winds of Winter is released, more fans will be reading in order to have all of their questions answered. I think we can all agree that the next book will be available before or after season 6. Hopefully, by then, we will learn what happened to Benjen Stark.